SpringBoot 集成 Spring Security(1)——入门程序

因为项目需要,第一次接触 Spring Security,早就听闻 Spring Security 功能强大但上手困难,学习了几天出入门道,特整理这篇文章希望能让后来者少踩一点坑(本文附带实例程序,请放心食用

本篇文章环境:SpringBoot 2.0 + Mybatis + Spring Security 5.0

源码地址:https://github.com/jitwxs/blog_sample

一、导入依赖

导入 spring-boot-starter-security 依赖,在 SpringBoot 2.0 环境下默认使用的是 5.0 版本。

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<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-security</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
<version>1.3.1</version>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>mysql</groupId>
<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
</dependency>

二、创建数据库

一般权限控制有三层,即:用户<-->角色<-->权限,用户与角色是多对多,角色和权限也是多对多。这里我们先暂时不考虑权限,只考虑用户<-->角色

创建用户表 sys_user

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CREATE TABLE `sys_user` (
`id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`name` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
`password` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

创建权限表 sys_role

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CREATE TABLE `sys_role` (
`id` int(11) NOT NULL,
`name` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

创建用户-角色表 sys_user_role

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CREATE TABLE `sys_user_role` (
`user_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
`role_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`user_id`,`role_id`),
KEY `fk_role_id` (`role_id`),
CONSTRAINT `fk_role_id` FOREIGN KEY (`role_id`) REFERENCES `sys_role` (`id`) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE,
CONSTRAINT `fk_user_id` FOREIGN KEY (`user_id`) REFERENCES `sys_user` (`id`) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

初始化一下表数据:

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INSERT INTO `sys_role` VALUES ('1', 'ROLE_ADMIN');
INSERT INTO `sys_role` VALUES ('2', 'ROLE_USER');

INSERT INTO `sys_user` VALUES ('1', 'admin', '123');
INSERT INTO `sys_user` VALUES ('2', 'jitwxs', '123');

INSERT INTO `sys_user_role` VALUES ('1', '1');
INSERT INTO `sys_user_role` VALUES ('2', '2');

博主有话说:

这里的权限格式为 ROLE_XXX,是 Spring Security 规定的,不要乱起名字哦。

三、准备页面

因为是示例程序,页面越简单越好,只用于登陆的 login.html 以及用于登陆成功后的 home.html,将其放置在 resources/static 目录下:

(1)login.html

login.html
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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>登陆</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>登陆</h1>
<form method="post" action="/login">
<div>
用户名:<input type="text" name="username">
</div>
<div>
密码:<input type="password" name="password">
</div>
<div>
<button type="submit">立即登陆</button>
</div>
</form>
</body>
</html>

博主有话说:

用户的登陆认证是由 Spring Security 进行处理的,请求路径默认为 /login,用户名字段默认为 username,密码字段默认为 password

(2)home.html

home.html
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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>登陆成功</h1>
<a href="/admin">检测ROLE_ADMIN角色</a>
<a href="/user">检测ROLE_USER角色</a>
<button onclick="window.location.href='/logout'">退出登录</button>
</body>
</html>

四、配置 application.properties

在配置文件中配置下数据库连接:

application.properties
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spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/security?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=root

#开启Mybatis下划线命名转驼峰命名
mybatis.configuration.map-underscore-to-camel-case=true

五、创建实体、Dao、Service 和 Controller

5.1 实体

(1)SysUser

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public class SysUser implements Serializable{
static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

private Integer id;

private String name;

private String password;

// 省略getter/setter
}

(2)SysRole

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public class SysRole implements Serializable {
static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

private Integer id;

private String name;

// 省略getter/setter
}

(3)SysUserRole

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public class SysUserRole implements Serializable {
static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

private Integer userId;

private Integer roleId;

// 省略getter/setter
}

5.2 Dao

(1)SysUserMapper

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@Mapper
public interface SysUserMapper {
@Select("SELECT * FROM sys_user WHERE id = #{id}")
SysUser selectById(Integer id);

@Select("SELECT * FROM sys_user WHERE name = #{name}")
SysUser selectByName(String name);
}

(2)SysRoleMapper

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@Mapper
public interface SysRoleMapper {
@Select("SELECT * FROM sys_role WHERE id = #{id}")
SysRole selectById(Integer id);
}

(3)SysUserRoleMapper

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@Mapper
public interface SysUserRoleMapper {
@Select("SELECT * FROM sys_user_role WHERE user_id = #{userId}")
List<SysUserRole> listByUserId(Integer userId);
}

5.3 Service

(1)SysUserService

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@Service
public class SysUserService {
@Autowired
private SysUserMapper userMapper;

public SysUser selectById(Integer id) {
return userMapper.selectById(id);
}

public SysUser selectByName(String name) {
return userMapper.selectByName(name);
}
}

(2)SysRoleService

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@Service
public class SysRoleService {
@Autowired
private SysRoleMapper roleMapper;

public SysRole selectById(Integer id){
return roleMapper.selectById(id);
}
}

(3)SysUserRoleService

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@Service
public class SysUserRoleService {
@Autowired
private SysUserRoleMapper userRoleMapper;

public List<SysUserRole> listByUserId(Integer userId) {
return userRoleMapper.listByUserId(userId);
}
}

5.4 Controller

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@Controller
public class LoginController {
private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(LoginController.class);

@RequestMapping("/")
public String showHome() {
String name = SecurityContextHolder.getContext().getAuthentication().getName();
logger.info("当前登陆用户:" + name);

return "home.html";
}

@RequestMapping("/login")
public String showLogin() {
return "login.html";
}

@RequestMapping("/admin")
@ResponseBody
@PreAuthorize("hasRole('ROLE_ADMIN')")
public String printAdmin() {
return "如果你看见这句话,说明你有ROLE_ADMIN角色";
}

@RequestMapping("/user")
@ResponseBody
@PreAuthorize("hasRole('ROLE_USER')")
public String printUser() {
return "如果你看见这句话,说明你有ROLE_USER角色";
}
}

博主有话说:

  • 如代码所示,获取当前登录用户:SecurityContextHolder.getContext().getAuthentication()

  • @PreAuthorize 用于判断用户是否有指定权限,没有就不能访问

六、配置 SpringSecurity

6.1 UserDetailsService

首先我们需要自定义 UserDetailsService ,将用户信息和权限注入进来。

我们需要重写 loadUserByUsername 方法,参数是用户输入的用户名。返回值是UserDetails,这是一个接口,一般使用它的子类org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.User,它有三个参数,分别是用户名、密码和权限集。

实际情况下,大多将 DAO 中的 User 类继承 org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.User 返回。

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@Service("userDetailsService")
public class CustomUserDetailsService implements UserDetailsService {
@Autowired
private SysUserService userService;

@Autowired
private SysRoleService roleService;

@Autowired
private SysUserRoleService userRoleService;

@Override
public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username) throws UsernameNotFoundException {
Collection<GrantedAuthority> authorities = new ArrayList<>();
// 从数据库中取出用户信息
SysUser user = userService.selectByName(username);

// 判断用户是否存在
if(user == null) {
throw new UsernameNotFoundException("用户名不存在");
}

// 添加权限
List<SysUserRole> userRoles = userRoleService.listByUserId(user.getId());
for (SysUserRole userRole : userRoles) {
SysRole role = roleService.selectById(userRole.getRoleId());
authorities.add(new SimpleGrantedAuthority(role.getName()));
}

// 返回UserDetails实现类
return new User(user.getName(), user.getPassword(), authorities);
}
}

6.2 WebSecurityConfig

该类是 Spring Security 的配置类,该类的三个注解分别是标识该类是配置类、开启 Security 服务、开启全局 Securtiy 注解。

首先将我们自定义的 userDetailsService 注入进来,在 configure() 方法中使用 auth.userDetailsService() 方法替换掉默认的 userDetailsService。

这里我们还指定了密码的加密方式(5.0 版本强制要求设置),因为我们数据库是明文存储的,所以明文返回即可,如下所示:

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@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(prePostEnabled = true)
public class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
@Autowired
private CustomUserDetailsService userDetailsService;

@Override
protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
auth.userDetailsService(userDetailsService).passwordEncoder(new PasswordEncoder() {
@Override
public String encode(CharSequence charSequence) {
return charSequence.toString();
}

@Override
public boolean matches(CharSequence charSequence, String s) {
return s.equals(charSequence.toString());
}
});
}

@Override
protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
http.authorizeRequests()
// 如果有允许匿名的url,填在下面
// .antMatchers().permitAll()
.anyRequest().authenticated()
.and()
// 设置登陆页
.formLogin().loginPage("/login")
// 设置登陆成功页
.defaultSuccessUrl("/").permitAll()
// 自定义登陆用户名和密码参数,默认为username和password
// .usernameParameter("username")
// .passwordParameter("password")
.and()
.logout().permitAll();

// 关闭CSRF跨域
http.csrf().disable();
}

@Override
public void configure(WebSecurity web) throws Exception {
// 设置拦截忽略文件夹,可以对静态资源放行
web.ignoring().antMatchers("/css/**", "/js/**");
}
}

七、运行程序

ROLE_ADMIN 账户:用户名 admin,密码 123
ROLE_USER 账户:用户名 jitwxs,密码 123

注:如果你想要将密码加密,可以修改 configure() 方法如下:

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@Override
protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
auth.userDetailsService(userDetailsService)
.passwordEncoder(new BCryptPasswordEncoder());
}

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